Sunday, 16 September 2018

Ifungurwa rya bamwe mu mfungwa za politiki mu Rwanda



Itangazo

Banyarwandakazi, banyarwanda, nshuti z’u Rwanda,

I. Dushingiye ku nkuru y’ifungurwa “mu buryo bucagase” rya bamwe mu mfungwa za politiki mu Rwanda,

II. Dushimiye abantu bose bagize uruhare mu gutuma ishyaka riri ku butegetsi mu Rwanda risunikirwa kwemera kubafungura.

III. Dutangaje ibikurukira: 

1.  Ni ngomwa ko abafunguwe “mu buryo bucagase” basubizwa mu buryo busesuye uburenganzira bwabo bwo kwidegembya no kwisanzura mu buzima bwa politiki.

2.   Ni ngombwa ko abantu bose bafunzwe ku mpamvu za politiki bafungurwa mu maguru mashya.

3.    Kugirango bibe byafatwa nk’ikimenyetso kidakuka cy’uko noneho ishyaka riri ku butegetsi mu Rwanda ryaba ryemeye gufungura urubuga rwa politiki, ni ngombwa ko habanza kubaho amahinduka meza yimbitse.

4.  Ishyaka DEMOCRATIC ALLIANCE rikomeje guharanira ko amaherezo u Rwanda ruzagira ubutegetsi buha urubuga ibitekerezo binyuranye (pluralism) kandi bugaha abanyarwanda bose amahirwe angana, ubwisanzure n’umutekano.

Bikorerwe i Liège ku itariki ya 16 nzeli 2018,

Seburanga Jean Leonard
Perezida


Democratic Alliance
Tel: +32465337114
E-mail: seburanga@yahoo.fr



Wednesday, 22 August 2018

Umwanya w’Ubwoko mu Mishyikirano ku Isangira ry’Ubutegetsi mu Rwanda (draft 1)

Banyarwandakazi, banyarwanda, nshuti z’u Rwanda,

Dutangaje ku mugaragaro umushinga (draft) w’inyandiko igaragagaza impamvu ishyaka DEMOCRATIC ALLIANCE ritekereza ko ubwoko bukwiye kugira umwanya bukwiye mu mishyikirano ku isangira ry’ubutegetsi mu Rwanda.

Dushimiye abagize uruhare mu itegurwa ryawo, abazadusangiza ibitekerezo bawufiteho n’abazadufasha mu kuwunononsora.

Bikorewe i Liège, ku itariki ya 22/08/2018

Seburanga Jean Leonard
Perezida


Democratic Alliance
Tel: +32465337114
E-mail: seburanga@yahoo.fr




UMWANYA W’UBWOKO MU MISHYIKIRANO KU ISANGIRA RY’UBUTEGETSI MU RWANDA (DRAFT 1)

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No one is allowed to say…the old tension between Hutus & Tutsis is still there, beneath the surface. But it is.” –tweet by KENNETH ROTH, Executive Director, Human Rights Watch (August 5, 2017).
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Hashize imyaka makumyabiri n’itanu amasezerano y’amahoro y’i Arusha ashyizweho umukono. Kuzirikana ku byiza byari biyakubiyemo bizahora ari ingenzi, cyane cyane ku bantu bifuza kuyubakiraho bategura ejo hazaza heza h’u Rwanda. Ku rundi ruhande ariko ni ngombwa kuzirikana ku nenge zagaragaye muri ayo masezerano, ari zo zishobora kuba zaratumye adashyirwa mu bikorwa kandi zigatuma icyizere cy’isangira ry’ubutegetsi kiyoyoka. Iyi nyandiko, iribanda ku ngaruka mbi zo kudaha ubwoko umwanya ukwiye, ni ukuvuga kudaha ubwoko umwanya ku rugero rungana n’urwo bufite muri politiki nyarwanda.

MU MIZI Y’IKIBAZO

Mu bihereranye n’ubwiganze bw’abagize ubwoko runaka, umuryango nyarwanda uteye ku buryo, mu gihugu (1) kirangwamo imitekerereze y’uko ubwoko busumbana (ethnic supremacism) (2) kandi kirangwa no kuba abantu baba biteze ko amatora azakorwa mu buryo butonesha abakandida bahuje ubwoko n’abatora,

(I) hari abanyapoliki bumva bafite icyizere cyo gutsinda amatora bitewe nubwiganze bwabo bahuje ubwoko na bo, mu gihe abandi bo, bashingiye ku buke bwabo bahuje ubwoko na bo, baba batizeye kuyatsinda:

(1) Perezida Grégoire Kayibanda n’abo bari bafatanyije ni rumwe mu ngero z’abanyapolitiki bashyize imbere ubwoko bwabo mu gushaka amajwi. Bageze ku butegetsi binyuriye mu matora kandi bakomeza kwiringira ko bazabugumishwaho na yo. N’ubwo bari biganjemo abanyapolitiki bo mu karere ka Nduga, ntibyababujije gushyira ubuyobozi bw’ingabo n’inzego z’umutekano z’igihugu mu maboko ya ba ofisiye (officiers) bakomoka mu kandi karere kubera ko bari biringiye ko ubutegetsi buzakomeza gutangwa na rubanda binyuriye mu matora. Hari abemeza ko ibyo babitewe n’igitekerezo cyari cyogeye cy’uko abanyarwanda bo mu bwoko runaka barushanya ubushobozi bwo gusohoza inshingano runaka neza bitewe n’akarere bakomokamo, bityo bakaba barishyiraga mu cyiciro cy’abafite ubushobozi bwo gukora politiki kurusha ubwo gusohoza inshingano za gisirikare.

(2) Mu ntangiriro y’imyaka ya za 1990, abari bibumbiye mu mashyaka ya opozisiyo ya kidemokarasi (MDR, PSD, PL, PDC...) ni urundi rugero rw’abaharaniye impinduka mu butegetsi badakoresheje ingufu za gisirikare.

(II) hari abanyapoliki bumva bafite icyizere cyo kugera ku butegetsi bishingikirije ku zindi mbaraga zidashingiye ku bwinshi bwababashyigikiye:

(1) Umwami Kigeli Ndahindurwa yakoresheje inzira y’urugomo mu kugundira ubutegetsi.

(2) Ishyaka rya UNAR (Union Nationale Rwandaise) na ryo ryakoresheje inzira y’urugomo mu guhirimbanira ubutegetsi.

(3) Perezida Habyarimana Juvénal n’abasangiragendo be (camarades du 5 juillet) na bo bayobotse inzira y’urugomo (coup d’état), bafashijwe n’ingabo z’igihugu zari ziganjemo ba ofisiye (officiers) bakomoka mu karere avukamo.

(4) Ishyaka FPR (Front Patriotique Rwandais) na ryo ryahisemo kugera ku butegetsi rikoresheje inzira y’urugomo, rishyigikiwe n’ingabo zaryo zari zariyise APR (Armée Patriotique Rwandaise), zari ziyobowe na ba ofisiye (officiers) biganjemo abo mu bwoko bw’abatutsi.

BASINYE AMASEZERANO BATANYUZWE

(I) Amasezerano yi Arusha yo mu w1993 yasinywe mu gihe impande zombi zari zishyamiranye mu ntambara, ni ukuvuga ishyaka MRND ryari ku butegetsi niryaburwanyaga rikoresheje intwaro za gisirikare (FPR), zitari zizeye kuzaguma ku butegetsi nyuma yamatora yari ateganyijwe mu mpera zinzibacyuho:

(1) Kubera ko ishyaka rya MRND ryari riyoboye u Rwanda mu buryo butari ubwa kidemokarasi byahaye ishyaka FPR urwitwazo ribyuririraho ryegura intwaro mu kwakira 1990 riraburwanya. Ariko, guhera mu w’1991, ubwo ishyaka MRND ryakomoreraga abatavuga rumwe na bwo rikemera politiki y’amashyaka menshi, impamvu imwe muri ebyiri FPR yari yarashingiyeho intambara yayo (ari zo kuzana demokarasi no gucyura impunzi) yavuyeho. Mu w’1993, amasezerano y’amahoro y’i Arusha yasubije ikibazo cy’impunzi, ari na cyo FPR yari isigaye yishingikirijeho, bityo FPR iba itakaje impamvu yayo ya nyuma mu zo yari isanzwe yitwaza mu gusobanura intambara yari yarashoyemo abanyarwanda. Kubera ko abanyapolitiki b’imena ba FPR bari mu cyiciro cy’abadafitiye icyizere inzira y’amahoro mu guharanira ubutegetsi, iri shyaka ryari rikeneye bikomeye indi mpamvu yatuma rikomeza intambara.

(2) Abagize uruhare mu mazeserano y’i Arusha bibeshye ku kintu cy’ingenzi: nyinshi mu mpunzi zavugaga rikijyana zari zikeneye ibirenze ibyo gutahuka mu gihugu kavukire cyazo. Zifuzaga kuzaguma ku butegetsi na nyuma y’inzubacyuho kandi ntizari zizeye kubihabwa n’amatora yari ateganyijwe mu mpera z’iyo nzibacyuho. Ibyavuye mu itora rya kamarampaka ryo mu w’1961 byari isomo batashoboraga kwibagirwa kandi ryaje gutsindagirizwa n’ibyavuye mu matora y’inzego z’ibanze yo muri zone tampo (demilitarized zone) yo mu w’1993. Mu yandi magambo, ikibazo cy’ingenzi amasezerano y’amahoro y’i Arusha yo mu w’1993 yagombaga kuba yarihatiye gusubiza cyari iki gikurikira: "ni gute abanyarwanda bo mu bwoko bwa nyamuke bari gukurirwaho impungenge zo kumva batatsinda amatora ku mpamvu zifitanye isano n’ubuke bw’abo bahuje na bo ubwoko?" Iyo abagize uruhare mu masezerano y’i Arusha yo mu w’1993 (bashishikajwe koko n’isangira ry’ubutegetsi) baba batarisobwe n’iyi ngingo, bari kuba barazirikanye ko inzibacyuho y’amezi 22 (n’ubwo yashoboraga kongerwa) itari ndende bihagije ku buryo abanyapolitiki bo mu bwoko nyamuke bari kuba bizeye ko izarangira bafite icyizere mu bijyanye n’amatora yari ateganyijwe.

(3) Abagize uruhare mu masezerano y’i Arusha yo mu w’1993 (bashishikajwe koko n’isangira ry’ubutegetsi) bibeshye ku kindi kintu cy’ingenzi: ubwoko bw’abatutsi ni nyamuke mu Rwanda mu bihereranye n’ubuto bw’umubare w’ababugize, ariko ntibivuga ko ari nyamuke no mu bihereranye n’izindi mbaraga zishobora kugeza abantu ku butegetsi bitanyuze mu matora. Uko bigaragara kubera amakuru make bari bafite kuri yi mimerere, abagize uruhare mu masezerano y’i Arusha yo mu w’1993 bakoze ikosa rikomeye ryo kudaha buri bwoko umwanya ukwiye. Mu kubigenza batyo, bahaye bamwe mu banyarwanda bo mu bwoko bw’abatutsi bari bashishikajwe no gukora politiki kuri kibi na cyiza impamvu yo kwizirika ku nzira y’intambara.

(4) Nk’abayobozi b’ishyaka ryari risobanukiwe neza imbaraga z’ikibazo cyavuzwe mu ngingo ebyiri zibanziriza iyi (ni ukuvuga umwanya w’ubwoko muri politiki nyarwanda), intagondwa za FPR zarwanyije zivuye inyuma ko ubwoko bushingirwaho mu gutegura amasezerano y’amahoro y’i Arusha yo mu w’1993, ahubwo zibukoresha mu kubiba no gukongeza urugomo rushingiye ku moko. Zabikoze zigamije guharura inzira izigeza ku butegetsi budasangiwe no kwiha impamvu yo kuvana ubwiganze bw’abagize ubwoko butari ubwazo ku rutonde rw’imbaraga zigena uko u Rwanda rutegekwa.

(5) Ishyaka MRND ryari ryubakiye kuri kudeta ya gisirikare (coup d’état) kandi rifite urubanza rw’ubwicanyi bwakorerwe abanyapolitiki b’abanyenduga. Izo mpamvu zatumye rimara imyaka irenga 15 ridashobora gufungura urubuga rwa politiki ngo ripiganwe n’abataravugaga rumwe na ryo. Kuba ryarahatiwe gufungura urubuga rwa politiki (mu w’1991) mbere y’imishyikirano yasojwe n’amasezerano y’i Arusha yo mu w’1993, byarishyize mu mimerere yatumye ritarashoboraga kwizera gutsinda amatora yari ateganyijwe mu masezerano ryari rimaze gusinya, kubera ko ayo masezerano yari yarafashije amashyaka ya opozisiyo ya kidemokarasi (cyane cyane ishyaka MDR) kugira imbaraga byagaragaraga ko zasatiraga gusumba iza MRND. Kimwe na FPR, MRND yasinye amasezerano y’amahoro y’i Arusha yo mu w’1993 itanyuzwe, ntiyayaha agaciro, ahubwo iyita ibipapuro bitagize icyo bivuze.

BAKIRANYE AMASEZERANO UBWUZU BATENGUHWA N’UBUSHOBOZI BUKE BWO KUYARINDA

Mu by’ukuri uruhande rwa opozisiyo ya kidemokarasi rwari rurangajwe imbere n’ishyaka rya MDR ni rwo rwari rwizeye kuzungukira mu masezerano y’i Arusha kubera ko yaganishaga ku matora rwibwiraga ko rurushamo abandi amahirwe. Ariko, nk’uko byari byaragenze mu mpera za repubulika ya mbere, abayobozi ba MDR batengushywe no kutagira ubushobozi bwo kuyarinda, maze birangira ubutegetsi bwegukanywe na rumwe mu mpande zitahaga agaciro demokarasi, ni ukuvuga rumwe mu mpande zitari zishishikajwe n’amatora yari kuzaba mu mpera z’inzibacyuho. Gushyira mu buryo busesuye inshingano y’umutekano w’abanyarwanda mu maboko y’ingabo za Loni cyangwa iz’igihugu cyari kuba cyiyemeje guhagararira ishyirwa mu bikorwa ry’ayo masezerano (trusteeship), byari bikenewe, muri rusange ku bw’inyungu z’abanyarwanda bari bafitiye icyizere inzira y’amahoro na demokarasi.

HAKENEWE IMISHYIKIRANO N’ANDI MASEZERANO

Nyuma y’imyaka 25 amasezerano y’amahoro y’i Arusha amaze asinywe, u Rwanda (1) ruyobowe n’ubutegetsi bw’igitugu buvangura abenegihugu rwifashishije ingabo ziyobowe na ba ofisiye (officiers) bakomoka mu bwoko bumwe. (2) Rwugarijwe n’amakimbirane akomeye hagati y’ubutegetsi buriho n’abatavuga rumwe na bwo. Hakenewe imishyikirano n’andi masezerano yazirikana ingingo zikurikira:

(I) Bitewe n’uko ishyaka FPR ryitwaye nyuma yo kugera ku butegetsi, byatanze amakuru abagize uruhare mu masezerano y’i Arusha yo mu w’1993 batari bafite: ubwoko bufite umwanya ukomeye muri politiki nyarwanda. Urugero, mu gihe abahutu bari bagize hafi 70% by’abari bari ku rutonde rw’abagombaga kuba abadepite b’inteko ishinga amategeko ishingiye ku byemeranyijweho mu masezerano y’amahoro y’i Arusha yo mu w’1993 (cfr urutonde rwo muri mutarama 1994), mu gihe cy’ubutegetsi bwa FPR ubwiganze bw’abahutu mu nteko bwagabanutse ku buryo mu w’1999 abatutsi ari bo bari bayiganjemo, ku kigero cya 52.9%. Mu buryo busa n’ubwo, mu gihe bari bagize 76.2% by’abari ku rutonde rwo muri werurwe 1994 rw’abagombaga kuba ba minisitiri bishingiye ku masezerano y’amahoro y’i Arusha yo mu w’1993, abahutu bari bahagarariwe kigero cya 59.1% gusa muri guverinoma ya mbere yashyizweho na FPR muri nyakanga 1994. Umubare w’abaminisitiri b’abahutu wakomeje kugabanuka ku buryo muri guverinoma yo mu w’2017 bari basigaye ari 27.3% gusa by’abaminisitiri bose (table 1). Ku rundi ruhande, n’ubwo amasezerano y’i Arusha yo mu w’1993 yateganyaga guhuriza hamwe (ku kigero cya 50-50% mu nzego z’ubuyobozi) ingabo za FAR (Forces Armées Rwandaises) zari ziyobowe na ba ofisiye bo mu bwoko bw’abahutu n’iza APR zari ziyobowe na ba ofisiye b’abatutsi, nyuma y’imyaka irenga makumyabiri ishyaka FPR riyobora u Rwanda, ubutegetsi bwaryo bukomeje kurangwa n’igisirikare kiyobowe na ba ofisiye bo mu bwoko bumwe, uhereye kuri bose muri barindwi bakomeye kurusha abandi: umugaba w’ikirenga (perezida wa repubulika), minisitiri w’ingabo, umunyamabanga uhoraho muri minisiteri y’ingabo, umugaba mukuru, umugaba w’izirwanira ku butaka, umugaba w’izirwanira mu kirere, umugaba w’inkeragutabara. Kubera iyo mpamvu, uyu munsi birakwiye ko abanyapolitiki bari ku butegetsi n’abatavuga rumwe na bwo kimwe n’abanyarwanda badafite aho babogamiye, bamaze kwemera ihame ry’uko “abanyarwanda bo mu bwoko runaka nta cyaha baba bakoze baramutse batoye umukandida bahuje na we ubwoko, igihe cyose baba babikoze mu buryo butabangamiye umudendezo n’uburenganzira bw’abo mu bundi bwoko bwo gutora na bo umukandida bashaka”, basubira i Arusha mu mishyikirano bagashyiraho gahunda y’isangira ry’ubutegetsi yatuma “abanyarwanda bo mu bwoko nyamuke bifuza kugira uruhare mu miyoborere y’igihugu cyabo no mu mikorereshereze y’umutungo wacyo bagira icyizere cy’uko batazazitirwa n’ubuke bw’abo bahuje ubwoko”.

Table 1. Umwanya w’ubwoko n’uburwanashyaka muri kabineti (cabinet) y’abaminisitiri y’u Rwanda kuva mu w’1992 kugeza mu w’2000.1

1perezida, minisitiri w’intebe na ba minisitiri bose, abanyamabanga ba leta batabariwemo.
2opozisiyo: amashyaka ya opozisiyo ya kidemokarasi.
3guverinoma yatangajwe ku itariki ya 18 werurwe 1994.
4ba minisitiri bose badakomoka mu mashyaka ya opozisiyo babariwe mu ruhande rw’ishyaka riri ku butegetsi.

(II) Ibinyuranye n’amasezerano y’i Arusha yo mu w’1993, ni ngombwa nanone ko, inzibacyuho igomba kuba ndende bihagije. Impande zifite intwaro za gisirikare zigomba kuzamburwa kugirango zitazazikoresha mu kubangamira abanyapolitiki bakunzwe n’abaturage, maze inshingano yo kurindira abanyarwanda umutekano igashyirwa mu buryo busesuye mu maboko y’ingabo za Loni cyangwa z’igihugu cyakwiyemeza mu ruhando rw’amahanga gusohoza inshingano yo guhagararira ishyirwa mu bikorwa ry’amasezerano mashya. Inzibacyuho igomba kurangira ari uko abanyarwanda bazaba bamaze kwishyiriraho uburyo bwo kubungabunga umutekano wabo butuma abakwifuza kongera gufata ubutegetsi binyuriye mu nzira y’urugomo badashobora kubigeraho.

(III) Ni ngombwa ko amasezerano mashya aha ibisubizo bikwiye ibibazo bikomoka ku myumvire ndondakoko (racism) yumvikanisha ko abanyarwanda barushanya ubushobozi bwo gusohoza neza inshingano runaka bishingiye ku bwoko bwabo cyangwa uturere bakomokamo; imyumvire yagize uruhare rukomeye mu gutuma habaho

(1) umuco wo guheza n’uwo kunena abo mu bundi bwoko.

(2) umuco wo kwihutura.

(3) guheza mu mashuri no mu butegetsi abanyarwanda bo mu bundi bwoko.

(4) guheza mu ngabo z’igihugu abanyarwanda bo mu bwoko bundi, zikagirwa umwihariko w’abanyarwanda bo mu bwoko bumwe.

(5) ubwubahane n’ubwizerane buke hagati y’abanyapolitiki ku mpamvu zifitanye isano no kudahuza bwoko.

(IV) Isangira ry’ubutegetsi rikwiye kubahiriza amahame akurikira:

(1) Ubwiganze bw’abagize ubwoko runaka mu butegetsi ntibugomba kuba munsi y’ijanisha runaka ryumvikanyweho (tuvuge 70%) ry’ubwiganze bw’abagize ubwo bwoko mu benegihugu b’u Rwanda muri rusange.

(2) Ubwiganze bw’abagize ubwoko runaka mu butegetsi ntibugomba kurenga ijanisha runaka ryumvikanyweho (tuvuge 60%) ry’imyanya y’ubutegetsi ipiganirwa.


Saturday, 4 August 2018

GAHUNDA YA POLITIKI Y’IYUBAKAGIHUGU (PROJET DE SOCIÉTÉ) Y’ISHYAKA « DEMOCRATIC ALLIANCE »

Banyarwandakazi, banyarwanda, nshuti z'u Rwanda,

Kuri iyi tariki ya 4 kanama 2018, umunsi twizihizaho isabukuru y’imyaka 25 amasezerano y’amahoro y’i Arusha amaze ashyizweho umukono, twebwe abarwanashyaka b’ikubitiro ba « DEMOCRATIC ALLIANCE », ishyaka riharanira ubwuzuzanye na demokarasi ya rubanda mu Rwanda,

A. Tumaze kubona ko ibibazo byo mu rwego rwa politiki u Rwanda ruhanganye na byo bidakomoka ku rwango kamere bamwe mu banyarwanda baba bafitiye abandi, ko ahubwo bikomoka ku byemezo bibi byagiye bifatwa mu bihe bitandukanye n’ubutegetsi n’abatavuga rumwe na bwo, mu bwikunde, ubutamenya n’uburangare;

B. Dushingiye ku ntego yari igamijwe n’umuryango w’abibumbye mu gihe wiyemezaga

(1)    gushyigikira itegurwa, isinywa n’ishyirwa mu bikorwa ry’amasezerano hagati ya UNAR (Union Nationale Rwandaise) na Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yashyiriweho umukono i New York ku itarikiya 8 gashyantare 1962 n’amasezerano y’amahoro hagati ya FPR (Front Patriotique Rwandais) na Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yashyiriweho umukono i Arusha ku itariki ya 4 kanama 1993;

(2)    guhagararira amatora ya kamarampaka mu Rwanda hose yo mu w’1961 n’ay’inzego z’ibanze yo mu w’1993 yakorewe muri amwe mu makomini y’akarere k’amajyaruguru yari agize ikitwaga zone tampo (demilitarised zone);

C. Nyuma yo gutekereza, kungurana ibitekerezo no kwemeranya kuri ibi bikurikira:

(1)   Abanyarwanda bibumbiye mu moko menshi. Muri yo atatu (« abatutsi», « abatwa» n’« abahutu») ni karande, ni yo mpamvu umuryango nyarwanda ubwawo ukunze kwitwa « imbaga y’inyabutatu »;

(2)   Ubwoko bw’abatwa ni ubwoko nsangwabutaka mu Rwanda;

(3)  Abanyarwanda bo mu bwoko runaka nta cyaha baba bakoze baramutse batoye umukandida bahuje na we ubwoko, igihe cyose baba babikoze mu buryo butabangamiye umudendezo n’uburenganzira bw’abo mu bundi bwoko bwo gutora na bo umukandida bashaka;
  
(4) Abanyarwanda bo mu bundi bwoko bemeye ihame ry’uburinganire bw’amajwi (ni ukuvuga « one person, one vote », mu cyongereza) baba banemeye ko, kubera ubwiganze bwabo mu muryango nyarwanda, abahutu ari bo mu by’ukuri bagomba guha igihugu cy’u Rwanda icyerekezo;

(5)  Abanyarwanda bo mu bwoko nyamuke bifuza kugira uruhare mu miyoborere y’igihugu cyabo n’imikorereshereze y’umutungo wacyo ntibakwiye kuzitirwa n’ubuke bw’abo bahuje ubwoko;

(6)   Mu gihugu gifite amateka nk’ay’u Rwanda, igitekerezo cyo gusangira ubutegetsi na ba nyamuke gikwiye kubonwa nk’igiha urufatiro ishyirwa mu bikorwa rirambye ry’ihame ry’uburinganire bw’amajwi (one person, one vote); 

(7)  Hagomba kubaho ibarurishamibare ry’abagize buri bwoko (ethnic statistics) kugirango ryifashishwe mu kubungabunga uburenganzira bw’ababugize;

(8)   Intambara ziswe izo kwagura u Rwanda zari umuvumo ku bazishoje n’ishyano ku bari barutuye muri icyo gihe; abanyarwanda bo mu gihe cya none baba bibeshye baramutse bazishyize mu murage w’amateka meza y’u Rwanda nk’uko abo mu gihe kizaza bazaba bibeshye baramutse bashimye intambara rushoza mu gihe cya none;1

(9) Mu gihugu kitagira demokarasi, ubusugire bw’igihugu buha ubudahangarwa umunyagitugu agashyira rubanda ku ngoyi nta mpungenge afite zo kugezwa imbere y’inkiko kandi bukabera imbogamizi igihugu cy’amahanga cyashaka gutabara abaturage;

(10) U Rwanda rugizwe n’uturere dufite byinshi duhuriyeho ariko nanone dufite ibyo dutandukaniyeho, hakubiyemo kuba umutungo kamere watwo udateye kimwe kandi ntuboneke hose ku gipimo kimwe;

D. Twamaganye politiki y’ubutegetsi buriho ubu mu Rwanda y’isumbanyamoko (ethnic supremacism) rigamije gutuma abahutu bumva batewe ipfunwe n’ubwoko bwabo kugeza n’aho bamwe babwihakana.

E. Twamaganye politiki y’ubutegetsi buriho ubu mu Rwanda igamije guhisha ivangura bukorera abahutu (cyane cyane gahunda yabwo ya « ndumunyarwanda » n’ishyirwaho ry’amategeko abuza abantu kwigaragaza mu moko yabo) kandi duhangayikishijwe bikomeye n’ingaruka mbi iyo politiki igira ku bundi bwoko, hakubiyemo kuba yarambuye abatwa uburenganzira bwabo nsangwabukata mu Rwanda.

F. Twamaganye politiki y’urugomo, itoteza n’iterabwoba ubutegetsi buriho ubu mu Rwanda bukorera abahutu kandi duhangayikishijwe bikomeye n’ingaruka iyo politiki igira ku banyarwanda bo mu bundi bwoko bifuza kubana neza n’abahutu, by’umwihariko abo muri ubwo bwoko bundi biyemeje gusangira umusonga n’abahutu (compassion), abagize imiryango yashyingiranye na bo n’abakomoka kuri iryo shyingiranwa ry’abadahuje ubwoko.

G. Twiyemeje kongera umurego mu guharanira kubaka u Rwanda ruha urubuga ibitekerezo binyuranye (pluralism), ruha abanyarwanda bose amahirwe angana kandi rurangwa n’ubwisanzure n’umutekano.

H. Dushyize ahagaragara gahunda ya politiki y'iyubakagihugu (projet de société) y'ishyaka « DEMOCRATIC ALLIANCE, ikubiyemo imishinga y'amavugurura ikurikira:

UMUTWE WA MBERE I: Umusogongero.

§1. Amateka y’u Rwanda yiganjemo abategetsi batinye demokarasi cyangwa baguye mu mutego wo kuyikerensa, ari yo soko y’ibibazo by’ingutu byugarije umuryango nyarwanda mu gihe cya none.

§2. Kwisungana −mu miryango migari (lineages), mu bwoko (clans) n’uturere dufite ubuyobozi (kingdoms)− byari bikenewe mu gushakira ibisubizo ibibazo byari bibugarije nk’ibiza, amapfa, ubujura, ubugizi bwa nabi n’ibindi. Nta gushidikanya ko izo mpamvu z’inyungu rusange zatumye abakurambere bishyira hamwe babikunze. Ariko, uko bigaragara, ku bw’amahirwe make, amaherezo amatsinda y’abujura n’abagizi ba nabi yaje kurusha abaturage imbaraga. Bamaze kwigarurira udusozi batuyeho no gushinga u Rwanda rw’ifatizo, abagize ayo matsinda n’ababakomokaho, ahari mu buryo bwo gushaka kwirindira umutekano bo ubwabo no kwagura ubutunzi bwabo, bakoresheje umuheto, inka n’umubano ufifitse, bigarurira indi misozi, bica abasanzwe bayiyobora babasimbuza ababo maze na ho bahita u Rwanda. Kuryoherwa no kurya imitsi y’abandi, guhangana n’ubwumvikane buke muri gahunda zabo no gutinya ko impunzi zikomoka ku misozi bamaze kwigarurira zakwifatanya n’abatware bo ku misozi zahungiyeho n’abaturage muri rusange bakabakura amata mu kanwa, byatumye batunamura icumu. Guharanira gusunika imbibi z’u Rwanda bigamije kwigizayo akaga, ni byo byaje kwitwa intambara zo kwagura u Rwanda. Umwuka wo gushaka gutungwa n’umuheto (kwigarurira ibyo abandi bagokeye) aho gutungwa n’imirimo ikorwa mu mahoro nk’ubuhinzi, ubworozi n’ubukorikori kimwe n’imikorere mibi yo gutoteza impunzi no gutsemba abategetsi b’imisozi bigaruriye bakabasimbuza abavantara ni yo soko y’ibibazo karande u Rwanda ruhanganye na byo: intambara zidashira, isumbanyamoko, amacakubiri, umuco wo guhakiririzwa n’uwo kwihanganira igitugu, umubano mubi n’amahanga arukikije n’ibindi.

§3. Abakurambere batuye ku butaka buri mu mbibi z’u Rwanda rwa none mbere cyane y’uko buhabwa izina ry’u Rwanda. Imipaka y’igihugu cy’u Rwanda yagiye ihindagurika mu mateka ndetse hari n’igihe rwabaga rutakiriho nyamara ntaho abaturage bagiye. Imipaka y’u Rwanda yagenwaga n’ububasha abategetsi barwo babaga bafite ku baturage bo mu karere u Rwanda rwa none ruherereyemo kugeza mu ntangiriro y’igihe cy’ubukoloni, ari bwo imipaka yarwo idahinduka yashyizweho.

§4. Mbere y’ubukoloni, umwami yabaga afite ububasha busesuye ku turere tumwe tw’u Rwanda rwa none, mu gihe utundi yabaga adufiteho ububasha bucagase; hari uturere yari atarigarurira kugeza mu ntangiriro y’ubukoloni.

§5. Iyicwa ry’umwami Mashira n’ihirikwa ry’ubwami bw’ababanda ni rumwe mu ngero zigaragaza neza uburyo u Rwanda rwa mbere y’ubukoloni rwubakiwe ku muco w’ubugizi bwa nabi, ubuhemu n’ubuhendanyi.

§6. Mu gihe cy’abami ba vuba, ubutegetsi bw'igihugu bwari mu maboko y'abantu bo mu bwoko bumwe kandi bakaburaga urubyaro rwabo. Bene ubu buryo bw'imiyoborere bwaheje abagize rubanda, maze benshi mu banyarwanda bo mu yandi moko n'ababakomokaho bavutswa batyo uburenganzira bwabo bw'ibanze bwo kugira uruhare mu miyoborere y’igihugu cyabo –umuntu yavuga ko bakeya mu baturarwanda ari bo bari abenegihugu b’u Rwanda, ko rwari rutuwe ahanini n’ingaruzwamuheto.

§6. Mu gihe cya repubulika ya mbere n'iya kabiri, abari ku butegetsi bari bahanganye n'ikibazo cy'abo bari barabusimbuyeho bari biganjemo abatemera ihame rya demokarasi ya rubanda ritsindagiriza uburinganire bw’abanegihugu rigira riti « buri muntu, ijwi ». Yari inshingano yabo y’ibanze gufasha uwo muco mwiza w’uburinganire na demokarasi gushinga imizi mu bawemeraga. Kubungabunga ibyari byumvikanyweho mu masezerano yari yarashyiriweho umukono i New York mu w'1962 byari ingenzi mu kubaka umuco mwiza wo gusangira ubutegetsi hagati y’abatsinze amatora n’abayatsinzwe. Kubera ko batabashije kubigeraho, byabaye ngombwa ko hasinywa andi amasezerano mu w’1993 i Arusha muri Tanzania.

§7. Abategetsi bariho ubu mu Rwanda batinya demokarasi, ari yo mpamvu

(1)   bananiwe gutera umugongo inzira y’urugomo (violence);

(2)  bananiwe kubahiriza amasezerano y’isangira ry’ubutegetsi yashyiriweho umukono i Arusha muw’1993;

(3)  bananiwe gufungura urubuga rwa politiki no gutegura amatora adafifitse, bavutsa abenegihugu uburenganzira bw’ibanze bwo kwihitiramo ababayobora;

(4)   bimitse umuco mubi w’isumbanyamoko.

§8. Duharanira ko, binyuriye mu gushyira mu bikorwa uyu mushinga, hajyaho ubutegetsi buziha inshingano yo kurera abategetsi badatinya demokarasi kandi bemera gusangira babikunze n’abatatsinze amatora.

UMUTWE WA II: Ubutaka.

§1. Ubutaka budafite ba nyirabwo ni bwo bwonyine buzitwa umutungo rusange w’akarere buherereyemo.

§2. Ba nyir’ubutaka bw’abantu ku giti cyabo bose bazahabwa inkondabutaka hatitawe ku cyo babukoresha (freeholding).

§3. Ubutaka butari ubw’abantu ku giti cyabo buzabarurwa nk’umutungo rusange w’akarere uzaba ushobora gukoreshwa n’akarere buherereyemo cyangwa uwo ari we wese hashingiwe ku masezerano y’intizo cyangwa y’ubukode azaba yagiranye na guverinoma y’ako karere (leaseholding).

§4. Nta muntu uzatakaza inkondabutaka ye igihe atabyiyemereye, kabone n’iyo kumwimura bizaba bisabwa n’akarere ku mpamvu z’inyungu rusange z’abagatuye; keretse byemejwe mu buryo budakuka n’urukiko rubifitiye ububasha.

§5. Buri karere kazishyiriraho politiki y’imikoreshereze y’ubutaka ikabereye, igenamigambi ry’imiturire n’ingamba zo gushakira ibisubizo ikibazo cy’ubucucike bukabije.

UMUTWE WA III: Imiyoborere.

§1. U Rwanda ruzaba rugizwe n’uturere twishyize hamwe (federated entities) tune: amajyepfo (Nduga ngari), amajyaruguru (Rukiga ngari), uburasirazuba (Buganza ngari) n'umujyi wa Kigali.2

§2. Gahunda nshya y’imiyoborere yo mu buryo bw’uturere twishyize hamwe izaha rugari ubudasa bwa buri karere bitabujije ko abanyarwanda bose bakomeza kunga ubumwe nk’abenegihugu b’igihugu kimwe.

§3. Guverinoma federali izahabwa inshingano zihariye nk’ububanyi n’amahanga, ubuvuzi, umutekano, urujya n’uruza, amatora, ifaranga (currency), imisoro n’amahoro, ingengo y’imari, ubugenzuzi bw’ubuziranenge n’ibindi. Za guverinoma z’uturere n’ubuyobozi bw’amakomini atugize bizahabwa inshingano yo kwita ku bindi bibazo nk’uburezi n’umuco, umurimo n’imibereho myiza, ubucuruzi n’ishoramari, ibikorwa-remezo, ubuhinzi n’ubworozi, kubungabunga ibidukikije, imitungire n’imikoreshereze y’ubutaka kimwe n’iy’indi mitungo kamere n’ibindi.3

§4. Binyuriye mu gushyiraho ubutegetsi bugendera ku mahame ya « demokarasi ishingiye ku ntumwa za rubanda (parliamentary pemocracy) », ni ukuvuga gahunda y’ubutegetsi nyubahiriza tegeko bushingiye ku mahitamo ataziguye y’inteko ishinga amategeko,

(1) intumwa za rubanda zizahabwa inshingano yo gushyiraho guverinoma, kuyiha amabwiriza, kuyigenzura, kuyisezerera no kuyisimbuza indi igihe bibaye ngombwa;

(2)   imbaraga z’ubutegetsi bw’igihugu ntizizongera kuba mu biganza by’agatsiko;

(3)   umuco mubi w’abakuru b’igihugu biyitiranya n’igihugu cyose uzacika;

(4) amahirwe y’uko ibyemezo bifatirwa mu nteko no muri guverinoma bishingira ku burenganzira bw’intumwa za rubanda bwo kugendera mu murongo w’ibyifuzo by’abazitoye, aho gushingira ku bushake bw’umunyagitugu n’amashumi ye, aziyongera;

(5)   abaturage bazaba bafite uburenganzira bwo kugenzura niba intumwa bitoreye zishyira mu bikorwa ibyo bazitumye kandi bazaba bashobora kuzandikira bazigezaho ibyifuzo byabo no kuzitumira ngo bungurane ibitekerezo igihe cyose babikeneye.

§5. Kubera ko minisitiri w’intebe ari we uzaba afite ububasha nyubahirizategeko nk’umukuru wa guverinoma (executive powers), umukuru w’igihugu azasigara mu by’ukuri ari uw’icyubahiro (ceremonial president), ni ukuvuga ko azaba adashinzwe ubuzima bw’umunsi ku munsi bw’igihugu. Ahubwo umukuru w’igihugu azahabwa ububasha bwihariye (reserve powers) buzasobanurwa neza mu itegekonshinga buzajya bukoreshwa mu kubungabunga ubwigenge n’ububasha bw’inteko ishinga amategeko n’ubw’ubucamanza.

§6. Usibye aho amategeko azaba abiteganya ukundi, tuvuge mu ngingo zayo zigamije guha ba nyamuke (minorities) inzira yo kugira uruhare rutaziguye mu mitegekere y’igihugu cyabo (equitable democracy), ihame ry’uburinganire bw’amajwi (one persone, one vote) rizaba ishingiro mu gufata ibyemezo mu nzego zose z’igihugu (« rubandist » democracy).

§7. Umukuru w’igihugu azaba agizwe n’abantu barenze umwe (umwe umwe kuri buri bwoko bugize imbaga y’inyabutatu nyarwanda na buri umwe kuri buri bwoko bugizwe nibura na 5% by’abenegihugu b’u Rwanda bose) bafata ibyemezo byose mu bwumvikane.4  

§8. Ibiganiro ku isangira ry'ubutegetsi bizasubukurwa. Abazabyitabira bazasuzuma ibikubiye mu masezerano y'i New York (1962) n’ay’i Arusha (1993) kandi bayaganireho bagamije gutegura andi masezerano n’amategeko azatanga ibisubizo ku bibazo byatumye amasezerano yo mu gihe cyahise atarageze ku ntego zayo. Kumvikana, kunononsora no gushyira mu bikorwa gahunda ya politiki y'isangira ry'ubutegetsi bizatuma buri bwoko bw'abanyarwanda bwibumbiyemo nibura 5% by’abanyarwanda bose buhagararirwa (a) muri guverinoma federali (ku rwego rw’abaminisitiri, abanyamabanga ba leta, abagize inama z'ubutegetsi z’ibigo bya leta, n’abagize inama nkuru ya polisi, iperereza n’urujya n’uruza) no (b) mu rukiko rw’ikirenga (federal supreme court), ku kigero kitari munsi ya 70% by'ubwiganze bwabwo mu muryango nyarwanda, ari ko nanone kitarenze 60% by'imyanya y’ubuyobozi iteganyijwe ku rwego runaka. (c) Mu nteko ishinga amategeko, buri bwoko bwibumbiyemo nibura 5% by’abanyarwanda bose buzajya buhagararirwa nibura ku kigero cya 15% by’imyanya ihari; imyanya isigaye izajya ipiganirwa hatitawe ku bwoko bw’abakandida.5

§9. Amategeko azatambamira abazagerageza gukoresha imyanya y’ubutegetsi barimo mu nyungu zabo bwite. Bityo, abanyarwanda bagize ibyo gushaka ubukire bwabo bwite intego yabo y’ibanze bazayoboka inzira yo kwikorera ku giti cyabyo. Buhoro buhoro, abanyarwanda bahisemo kugira ibyo guharanira inyungu rusange intego yabo y’ibanze bazagenda barushaho kwiganza mu butegetsi bw’igihugu.

§10. Buri karere kazaba kagizwe n’amakomini. Buri komini izajya iyoborwa n’ikipe nyobozi igizwe na burugumesitiri na ba visi burugumesitiri. Buri shyaka rya politiki cyangwa ishyirahamwe ry’amashyaka (party coalition) ryiyemeje gutanga abakandida rizajya ryamamaza itsinda ry’abakandida rizaba ikipe nyobozi yuzuye (burugumesitiri na ba ba visi burugumestiri) rimaze gutsinda amatora. Abakandida bigenga na bo bazajya biyamamariza mu itsinda rizaba ikipe nyobozi yuzuye rimaze gutsinda amatora. Buri bwoko bwibumbiyemo nibura 5% by’abatuye komini bugomba kuba buyihagarariwemo.

§11. Abagize amakipe nyobozi b’amakomini bose bazajya bateranira mu nama bakore inteko ishinga amategeko y’akarere izaba ifite inshingano zo gutora amategeko agamije ishyirwa mu bikorwa ry’amategeko yo ku rwego rw’igihugu cyose (no kuyuzuza) no gushyiraho abagize guverinoma y’akarere, kubagenzura no kubasimbuza abandi igihe cyose ibonye ari ngombwa.

§12. Urukiko rw’ikirenga (federal supreme court) ruzaba rufite ububasha bwo kwambura inshingano intumwa ya rubanda mu nteko ishinga amategeko ku rwego rw’igihugu, burugumesitiri  cyangwa visi burugumesitiri mbere y’uko arangiza manda yatorewe, ku mpamvu zo kutubahiriza itegeko nshinga ry’igihugu (federal constitutional law) n’andi mategeko.

§13. Uwatorewe umwanya w’umukuru w’igihugu akomeza imirimo ye y’umukuru w’igihugu kugeza asoje manda yatorewe, keretse byemejwe ukundi nibura ku bwiganze bw’amajwi bwa bibiri bya gatatu by’abagize inama ihuriwemo na ba burugumesitiri bose na ba visi burugumesitiri bose. Iyi nama itumizwa na perezida w’urukiko rw’ikirenga abisabwe nibura na bibiri bya gatutu by’abagize inteko ishinga amategeko y’igihugu (federal parliament) kandi ikayoborwa n’abacamanza b’urukiko rw’ikirenga ari na rwo rutangaza icyemezo cyayo.

UMUTWE WA IV: Amoko.

§1. Amasezerano n'amategeko mpuzamahanga ku burenganzira bwa ba nyamuke n’abasangwabutaka azubahirizwa.

§2. Amategeko, politiki y’imiyoborere n'inzego z’igihugu bizaba biteye ku buryo bizafasha mu gusangira ubutegetsi ku rugero rukwiye. Intego ni uko amaherezo inzego za leta zizaba zaramaze gushikama ku buryo kubogama kw’abatora kuzaba kudashobora gutambamira uburenganzira bwa ba nyamuke.

§3. Guverinoma igawa n’abarenga 50% by’abanyarwanda bo mu bwoko runaka izaba igomba kwisuzuma mu biheraranye n’uburyo yubahiriza amasezerano n’amategeko agenga isangira ry’ubutegetsi maze ikosore aho bikenewe.

§4. Abanyarwanda bo mu bwoko bw'abatwa bari batunzwe n’ibikomoka mu byanya bikomwe nka za pariki bazaba mu b’ikubitiro bazasangizwa ku mutungo w’akarere ukomoka ku bukerarugendo bukorerwa muri ibyo byanya.

§5. Abanyarwanda bo mu bwoko bw'abatwa baziga ku buntu, bafashwe kubona akazi kandi abahisemo kwikorera ku giti cyabo bagabanyirizwe imisoro.

§6. Abanyarwanda bo mu bwoko bw’abatwa bazashyirirwaho uburyo bwihariye butuma bahagararirwa bikwiye mu nzego z’ubutegetsi.

§7. Abanyarwanda bavuka ku babyeyi badahuje ubwoko bujuje imyaka y’ubukure bazahabwa uburenganzira bwo guhitamo hagati yo kwitirirwa ubwoko bwa « ba se », ba se ba « ba se » cyangwa ba sekuru babyara ba se no kubarurirwa mu bwoko bwabo bwihariye bw’ « abahutsi » cyangwa mu cyiciro cy’« abandi ».6

§8. Guverinoma izasuzuma ubusabe bw’abanyarwanda bavuka ku babyeyi badahuje ubwoko bujuje imyaka y’ubukure bifuza kwitirirwa ubwoko bwa ba nyina kandi ibufateho icyemezo imaze kugisha inama inzobere mu by’umuco.

UMUTWE WA V: Ubusugire n’umutekano.

§1. Izina « Rwanda » ntirizongera guhabwa ubusobanuro bwo « kwaguka kw’imbibi z’ubutaka » bw’igihugu kubera ko ubwo busobanuro bushyira imbere umwuka mubi wo guhungabanya umutekano w’abaturanyi hagamijwe kwigarurira ibihugu byabo. Igisobanuro cyo « kwaguka kw’aho umucyo w’ishusho yarwo ugeza usakara mu isi » mu mahoro n’ubwubahane ni cyo kizashyirwa imbere.

§2. Imitwe yose y'ingabo z'igihugu cy'u Rwanda izaseswa hagamijwe kubaka amahoro mu karere u Rwanda ruherereyemo no guca umuco mubi wa gashozantambara.7, 8

§3. U Rwanda ruzarindirwa umutekano mu buryo bumwe muri ubu bukurikira:

(1)   Mu gihe cy’inzibacyuho, u Rwanda ruzacungirwa umutekano n’igihugu cy’igihangage kizaba cyemeye kuzihuza na rwo bigakora igihugu kimwe. Bamaze kubona uko iyo nzibacyuho izaba yaragenze, abanyarwanda bazahitamo hagati yo gusubirana ubusugire busesuye bw’igihugu cyabo no kwihuza n’icyo gihugu bigakora igihugu kimwe gishya.

(2)  Nyuma y’inzibacyuho, abanyarwanda nibahitamo kudahara ubusugire bw’igihugu cyabo, umutekano w’u Rwanda uzarindwa na polisi yarwo. Igitsure cy’ibihugu by’amahanga byihagazeho u Rwanda ruzagirana na byo umubano mwiza n’amasezerano y’ubufatanye bwihariye kizarurinda gukorwa mu jisho.

(3) Nyuma y’inzibacyuho, abanyarwanda nibahitamo ko u Rwanda ruhara ubusugire bwarwo mu buryo bwuzuye cyangwa bucagase maze rukaba intara y’igihugu gishya cyavuzwe haruguru, icyo gihugu gishya ni cyo kizaba gifite inshingano zo kurindira umutekano abazaba batuye ahitwa u Rwanda ubu no kubaka inzego z’umutekano amoko yose yibonamo.

§4. Umuco mubi w’uko inzego z’umutekano z'u Rwanda ziyoborwa na ba ofisiye (officers) bakomoka mu bwoko bumwe (nk’aho hari indwara kamere ibuza abanyarwanda bo mu bundi bwoko kuzuza ibisabwa kugirango na bo babe ba ofisiye) uzavaho.

§5. Inzego z’umutekano z’u Rwanda ntizizongera kugira uruhare mu mateka mabi y’igihugu.

UMUTWE WA VI: Ubutabera n’ubwiyunge.

§1. Ihame ry’uko icyaha ari gatozi rizubahirizwa.

§2. Ihame ry’uko abantu bareshya imbere y’amategeko rizubahirizwa.

§3. Politiki y’ubutabera bwunga izasimbura umuco waranze abagiye basimbura abandi ku butegetsi mu Rwanda wo kwihimura no guhirikira ku bandi uruhare bafite mu mateka mabi y’igihugu.

§4. Gahunda y’ibiganiro bihoraho ku mateka, bizira ubuhendanyi kandi bikozwe mu bwubahane no mu budahutaza, izubaka ubwiyunge n’ubworoherane.

§5. Hazubakwa urwego rwa polisi ruzira amakemwa.

§6. Hazubakwa ubutegetsi bw’ubucamanza buzira ruswa kandi budakorera mu kwaha kw’abantu ku giti cyabo.

UMUTWE WA VII: Uburezi n’imibereho myiza y’abaturage.

§1. Impamvu zitera ubuhunzi zizavanwaho, impunzi zoroherezwe gutahuka kandi abamaze gutaha bafashwe kongera kwiyubaka.

§2. Ihame ry’ubwuzuzanye n’uburinganire bw’ibitsina byombi rizubahirizwa.

§3. Umushahara mbumbe utarengeje amafaranga ibihumbi magana abiri na mirongo itanu buri kwezi (250,000) ntuzongera gusoreshwa.

§4. Abanyarwanda biyemeje gukora imirimo ya tekiniki, imyuga n’ubukorikori baziga ku buntu, bafashwe gushaka akazi kandi muri bo abahisemo kwikorera ku giti cyabo bagabanyirizwe imisoro ku rugero ruzagenda rwiyongera uko umubare w’abo bazaba bahaye akazi uzagenda urushaho kuzamuka.

§5. Buri munyeshuri usoje amasomo ye muri kaminuza wifuza kwinjira mu mirimo y’ubutegetsi bwite bwa leta mu myanya idatorerwa, azajya akurikira amasomo yihariye mu gihe cy’imyaka ibiri ikubiyemo umwimenyerezo (internship) wo kwita kuri rubanda w’amasaha 1,200 mu nzego zibahuza na rubanda umunsi ku munsi. Abashoje neza iyo gahunda bazahabwa impamyabushobozi ibemerera gukora mu butegetsi bwite bwa leta.

§6. Abanyarwanda ntibazongera kuvangurwa mu myivurize. Abari mu bwisungane mu kwivuza bazahabwa serivisi zimwe mu buvuzi n’ubwo umuntu ashobora kuzaba yaratanze umusanzu w’ubwisungane usumba uwa mugenzi we badahuje amikoro.

H. Dutangarije rubanda inzira z’ingenzi zizatugeza ku mavugurura duharanira.

(1) Mbere y’amaza y’ubutegetsi duharanira.

(a)   (i) Kunononsora itegekoshingiro ry'ishyaka « DEMOCRATIC ALLIANCE » kugirango rirusheho guhuza abantu no kubaha uburyo bw’imikoranire myiza kurushaho no (ii) kurushaho guhuza gahunda ya politiki yaryo y'iyubakagihugu n’imimerere ku buryo iba intangarugero mu gusubiza ibibazo byo mu rwego rwa politiki byugarije u Rwanda.

(b) Gufatana urunana n’abandi banyarwanda biyemeje kwihagararaho no kurwanya akarengane badasesa amaraso, badahutaza kandi batonona.

(c)  (i) Gusobanurira abemeye kudutega amatwi uko tuzubaka u Rwanda rurangwa n’« ubwisanzure, umutekano, pururarisimi (pluralism), uburinganire n’uburumbuke » kuri bose no (ii) kubamenyesha ko twiteguye gukora ibirenze ibyo kubanisha neza u Rwanda n’andi mahanga dutera intambwe idasanzwe yo gusaba rubanda kwemera guhara ubusugire bwarwo rukaba imwe mu ntara z’igihugu kizaba cyemeye kwihuza na rwo.

(2) Nyuma y’amaza y’ubutegetsi duharanaria.

(a)   Gushyira mu bikorwa imishinga y'amavugurura yavuzwe haruguru.

(b)   Kubakira ejo hazaza h’u Rwanda ku muco wo (i) guhanga ibisubizo byo mu rwego rwa politiki uhereye ku byo wize, wumvise, wiboneye cyangwa witekerereje (ubucurabwenge); (ii) gukoresha ikoranabuhanga mu mirimo ya buri munsi; (iii) kutihanganira na gato ingeso mbi ya ruswa; (iv) gutahura ikibi hakiri kare no kukiburizamo mbere y’uko kiba; (v) kongera isuku no gutanga serivisi nziza; (vi) kubungabunga no kubyaza umusaruro ibyagezweho; (vii) kudasesagura no guteganyiriza ejo hazaza; (viii) kubungabunga ubwuzuzanye n’ubwivugurure bw’ibidukikije; no (ix) kwimakaza ubwubahane, ubworoherane n’ubudahutaza mu gihugu no hanze y’imbibi zacyo.

(c)   Gushyiraho amategeko yihariye agamije guhindura u Rwanda « umuhora w’amahoro (sanctuary of peace) » muri Afurika: (i) itegeko ryerekeye iby’ubusugire bw’igihugu, ububanyi n’amahanga,  ubwigenge bw’uturere n’imikoranire yatwo na guverinoma federali, n’ubwigene bw’abaturage; (ii) itegeko rigamije kubungabunga umuco, kubahiriza diverisite (diversity) no gukumira ibyaha bifitanye isano na idantite (identity); (iii) itegeko rigamije kubungabunga ubwisanzure mu itangamakuru n’itangazabitekerezo; (iv) itegeko rigamije kubungabunga uburenganzira bwo kwishyira hamwe, by’umwihariko ubw’abibumbiye mu mitwe ya politiki, imiryango idaharanira inyungu n’amashyirahamwe ya sosiyete sivile; (v) itegeko rigamije kurinda umutungo wa rubanda n’uko ibyiza by’igihugu bisangirwa na bose hashingiwe ku ihame ry’« ubwuzuzanye (equity) »; n’ (vi) itegeko rishyiraho kandi ritunganya imikorere y’urwego rw’umutekano, iperereza n’ibijyanye n’abinjira n’abasohoka mu gihugu.

I. Ku bihereranye n’ibiganiro hagati y’ubutegetsi buriho ubu mu Rwanda n’abatavuga rumwe na bwo, dutangaje ibi bikurikira:

(1)  Ntituzemera kugirana ibiganiro na bwo igihe cyose tuzaba tutabyizeyemo umutekano, igihe ibyo biganiro bizaba bibubogamiyeho cyangwa birimo ibinyoma, kujijisha n’ubuhendanyi.

(2) Tuzaharinira ko umuryango w'abibumbye n'ibihugu bizaba byiyemeje gufasha abanyarwanda muri ibyo biganiro baniyemeza gusohoza inshingano yo kubungabunga umutekano wa rubanda mu gihugu n’uw’intumwa za opozisiyo.

(3)  Tuzaharanira ko umuhuza w'abanyarwanda atoranywa muri kimwe mu bihugu biyobowe mu buryo bwa kidemokarasi kandi kitazwiho umuco mubi wo guhonyora uburenganzira bw'ikiremwamuntu.

(4)   Ntituzitabira ibiganiro bikozwe mu buryo butuma twakwiyumva nk'abagererwa bahakwa kuri shebuja.

(5)  Tuzirinda kugirana amasezerano y'ubufatanye n'imiteguro ibwegamiyeho igihe cyose iyo miteguro izaba itarisubiza ubwigenge bwayo ku rugero rukwiye.

(6) Ntitwigurisha. Dukora politiki ku buntu. Turi abakorerabushake bakoresha impano z'ubuzima, ubushobozi bwo gutekereza n'amikoro yacu ku buntu tugamije inyungu rusange. Nta yindi ndonke cyangwa ishimwe iryo ari ryose twiteze usibye kuzagira uruvugiro rwagutse no kuzaryoherwa na demokarasi na repubulika ya rubanda nk'abazaba barabiharaniye.

J. Dutumiriye abanyarwanda bose bashishikajwe n’amavugurura duharanira kwifatanya natwe bizihiza itariki ya

(1) 4 kanama nk'umunsi ngarukamwaka wo kuzirikana kuri "demokarasi y'ubwuzuzanye (equitable democracy)".

(2) 25 nzeli nk'umunsi ngarukamwaka wo kuzirikana ku "miyoborere ishingiye ku bushake bwa rubanda (rubandist democracy)".

K. Dusabye abandi bantu bose bahangayikishijwe n'ibibazo bya politiki byavuzwe haruguru, by'umwihariko abifuza kugira uruhare rutaziguye mu kunononsora ibisubizo tubiteganyiriza, ibi bikurikira:

(1)   Kwibohora ku ngoyi ya FPR mu maguru mashya no kutazetemera kugirana ibiganiro na ryo igihe cyose rizaba

(a)     ritarasaba imbabazi abanyarwanda,

(b)     ritarafungura imfungwa za poliki,

(c)     ritarafungura urubuga rwa politiki,

(d)     ritarazibukira politiki yaryo y'isumbanyamoko.

(2)    Kwitandukanya n’amashyaka agaragara nk’abereyeho gushwiragiza rubanda.

(3)   Kwitondera amashyaka ayobowe n’abantu bubakiye politiki yabo ku misingi mibi nko (a) kunyurwa manuma, (b) gufata inzira yo kwibohora kwa rubanda nk’ishoramari rigamije inyungu bwite z’abiyita abalideri, (c) gupfobya ihame ry’uburinganire, (d) gushakira umuti w’ibibazo mu nzira y’urugomo.

Harakabaho « DEMOCRATIC ALLIANCE », ishyaka rya rubanda!

Bikorerwe i Liège, ku itariki ya 4 kanama 2018.

Mu izina ry’abarwanashyaka b’ikubitiro ba « DEMOCRATIC ALLIANCE »,

Seburanga Jean Leonard
Tel: +32465337114
E-mail: seburanga@yahoo.fr


1Guhunga urugomo rubakorerwa n’inzara zikomoka ku kuba barambuwe uburenganzira ku butaka bwabo kandi ntibagire ubwinyagamburiro mu mikoreshereze yabwo n’iy’umusaruro ubukomokaho, ni zimwe mu mpamvu zakunze gutuma abanyarwanda bahunga igihugu cyabo. Guteza intambara mu bihugu zahungiyemo ni bumwe mu buryo bukoreshwa n’ubutegetsi bw’u Rwanda mu kugarura impunzi mu gihugu cyazo ku ngufu. Ikibabaje ariko, ni uko bene izo intambara zigamije gusibira abanyarwanda amayira y’ubuhunzi hari abatekereza ko ziba zigamije kwagura igihugu cy’u Rwanda −usibye ko ibyo kwagura igihugu bitanakenewe rwose ; mu by’ukuri n’iyo izo ntambara zaba zigamije kwagura igihugu, nta nyungu igaragara rubanda yabibonamo; imvune y’umuturage utunzwe no kwiyuha akuya ntivanwaho no kuba atuye mu gihugu kinini; kwagura igihugu byungura ba runyunyuzi. Ni koko, ubutegetsi buriho ubu mu Rwanda buzwiho guteza umutekano muke n’intambara mu bihugu by’amahanga bugamije kuburabuza ababuhunze babituyemo, kwihimura ku bategetsi b’ibyo bihugu byabahaye ubuhungiro ndetse no gusahura umutungo wabyo. Bubigeraho bubanje guca impunzi z’abanyarwanda mo ibice bibiri: igice cya mbere cy’abo bwita abanzi babwo n’igice cya kabiri cy’abo buvuga ko bushyigikiye ndetse ko bwiyemeje kubafasha. Bumaze kubatera ubwoba (no kubatangaho ibitambo mu buryo bw’amayeri) bituma bumva bugarijwe n’akaga ko kurimburwa n’abo mu gice cya mbere bafatanyije n’abaturanyi babo bo badakomoka mu Rwanda, abo mu gice cya kabiri bumva nta mahitamo bafite uretse gushyigikira umugambi wabwo w’intambara zitwa izo guharanira uburenganzira bwabo, mu gihe abatuye u Rwanda bo bazifata nk’izigamije kwagura igihugu, nyamara zigamije mbere na mbere guca ubuhunzi hakoreshejwe inzira y’urugomo. No mu gihe cya mbere y’ubukoloni ni ko byari bimeze. Intambara ziswe izo kwagura igihugu zabaga mbere na mbere zigamije (a) guhatira impunzi n’abasuhuke gutahuka mu gihugu ku ngufu no kubazinura kuzongera gushakira umutekano mu guhunga, (b) gusunikira abatarahunze igihugu kwibeshya ko bafashe umwanzuro mwiza bahitamo guhama hamwe bagaharirwa bakanyukirwa (c) no gutuma ibihugu by’ibituranyi byima indaro abanyarwanda babihungiyeho. Ndetse mu gihe cya vuba hari ibihugu bimwe byageze aho bifatanya n’ubutegetsi bw’u Rwanda kuhiga impunzi zarwo, ahari kubera gutinya kwirahuriraho umuriro. Uko bigaragara, u Rwanda n’akarere ruherereyemo ntibishobora kugira amahoro arambye rugifite ingabo z’igihugu ubutegetsi bushobora gukoresha muri ubwo buryo. Ni yo mpamvu imitwe yose y’ingabo z’igihugu cy’u Rwanda ikwiye guseswa.

2Akarere k’amajyaruguru (Rukiga ngari) kazaba kagizwe n’ubutaka bw’u Rwanda rwa none buherereye hejuru y’urubibi rutandukanya Karongi na Rutsiro, umugezi wa Nyabarongo, umugezi wa Nyabugogo, no mu burengerazuba bw’umurongo uhuza Cyamutara na Muti-Nyagahanga (uciye i Rwafandi, mu Rukomo n’i Kagamba), n’imigezi ya Walufu na Kagitumba. Umujyi wa Kigali uzaba uhana imbibi n’akarere k’urukiga n’ikiyaga cya Muhazi mu majyaruguru yawo, akarere k’induga mu burengerazuba bwawo, igihugu cy’u Burundi mu majyepfo yawo, n’ikiyaga cya Mugesera mu burasirazuba bwawo. Akarere k’amajyepfo (Nduga ngari) kazaba kagizwe n’ubutaka bw’u Rwanda rwa none buherereye hagati y’ibihugu by’u Burundi na Repubulika iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo, akarere k’urukiga n’umugezi w’Akanyaru. Akerere k’uburazirazuba (Buganza ngari) kazaba kagizwe n’ubutaka bw’u Rwanda rwa none buzaba buherereye mu burasirazuba bw’umujyi wa Kigali n’akarere k’amajyaruguru.

3Politiki y’ubwigenge n’ubwigene bw’uturere igamije guha guverinoma ya buri karere (federated region) −amajyaruguru, amajyepfo, uburasirazuba cyangwa umujyi wa Kigali− uburenganzira bwo guhitamo ibinogeye abagatuye, hakubiyemo (a) kwitorera abayobozi bako no (b) kugena politiki y'ihererekanya n'imikorereshereze y'ubutaka n’indi mitungo kamere bigaherereyemo. Urugero, Ingagi zo muri pariki y'ibirunga, isoko y'amazi ya Mutobo n'urugomero rw'Amashyarazi rwa Ntaruka bizafatwa nk'umutungo bwite w'akarere k'amajyaruguru ari na ko kagomba kugena politiki y'imicungire yawo kimwe n'iyo guteza imbere ubuhinzi bw'ibirayi bwo muri Musanze, Nyabihu na Rubavu n’iy'imikoreshereze myiza y'inzuri za Gishwati. Urugomero rw'amashyanyarazi rwa Rusizi na pariki ya Nyungwe na politiki yo guteza imbere ubuhinzi bw’ikawa ya Maraba n'imyumbati ya Kinazi bizaba bireba akarere k'amajyepfo. Politiki y'ubutaka, inganda n'ibikorwa-remezo byo mu mujyi wa Kigali bizaba bireba abanyakigali. Ubukerarugendo bwo muri pariki y’Akagera, ubuhinzi bw’urutoki bwa Kibungo n’imikorereshereze myiza y’inzuri zo mu Mutara bizaba ari inshingano y’akarere k’uburasirazuba. Umwuka wa gazi metani (methane gas) uboneka ku bwinshi mu kiyaga cya Kivu, uzafatwa nk'umutungo bwite w'uturere dukora kuri icyo kiyaga, bityo abaturage b'akarere k'amajyepfo n'ak'amajyaruguru abe ari bo bagena uburyo bubanogeye bwo kuwubyaza umusaruro.

4Hashingiwe ku bunararibonye bw’ibihugu nka Bosnia-Herzegovina (bigendera kuri gahunda z’ubutegetsi ziteganya ko umukuru w’igihugu aba agizwe n’abantu barenze umwe banganya ububasha bwo gufata ibyemezo), iyi gahunda izanononsorwa ihuzwe neza n’imimerere yihariye y’u Rwanda.

5Buri gihe iburungushura rizajya rikorwa mu buryo bukurikira: kuva kuri « .0 » kugeza « .5 » bizajya bihwanywa na « 0. ». Hejuru ya « .5 » bizajya bihwanywa na « 1. ».

6Icyiciro cy’« abandi » kizaba gikubiyemo abanyarwanda bo mu moko atari karande n’abanyarwanda bafite nibura umubyeyi umwe ukomoka mu mahanga bakaba barahisemo kutitirwa ubwoko bw’umubyeyi wabo ufite inkomoko mu Rwanda.

7Politiki y’u Rwanda rutagira ingabo z’igihugu ihuje n’imimerere. Ibibazo byinshi u Rwanda ruhanganye na byo ubu bifite umuzi mu muco mubi wogukoresha ingabo z’igihugu mu guhohotera rubanda, kwimakaza ubwikanyize bw’udutsiko turi ku butegetsi no guteza umutekano muke mu mpugu zikikije u Rwanda. Kugirango igere ku ntego, ni ngombwa ko iyi politiki izashyirwa mu bikorwa n’abategetsi biteguye (a) gushyira abari abasirikare babyifuza kandi babifitiye ubushobozi mu zindi nzego z’imirimo cyangwa kubagenera ingurane yo mu rwego rw’amikoro ibafasha gusubira mu buzima busanzwe no kwihangira imirimo igihe bazaba bahisemo guhagarika akazi ka leta; (b) kubanisha neza abanyarwanda; (c) kugarura umwuka w’amahoro mu karere no kubana neza n’ibindi bihugu, by’umwihariko ibirukikije kimwe n’ibyiyemeje gushyigikira no guteza imbere umuco w’amahoro n’ubudahutaza; (d) kwigira ku bunararibonye bw’ibihugu bimaze igihe bitagira ingabo z’igihugu nka Costa Rica n’ibindi.

8Gusura ibihugu nka Mauritius, Costa Rica, Iceland, Liechtenstein (n’ibindi bisanzwe bitagira ingabo z’igihugu) no kugisha inama abayobozi babyo bizavamo amakuru y’ubunararibonye azafasha mu kunononsora iyi gahunda.